# The Sun and its Eight Orbit Planets in our Solar System

After watching Interstellar that movie, I’ve got more amaze by the massive universe that surrounding us. As we human live in Earth and Earth is one of the solar system planet, and our solar system is just a very tiny little bit of thing inside the huge huge massive universe.

As we live in here, I think is better to have basic understanding about what consists in our solar system too. During my school time, solar system is consist of 9 planets, but the last planet, namely Pluto, had got omitted away. Why Pluto get ignore in the solar system? Because it was found out to be one of the big icy body at the outer solar system disc, namely Kuiper Belt. One of the fact to know is our solar system formed about 4.6 billion years ago according to space expert in Earth.

Below are some basic facts and figure about our big star The Sun and the other orbiting 8 planets according to their orders.

## The Sun

Type: Star

Mean Radius: 695,508 km

Equatorial Circumference: 4,370,005.6 km

Volume: 1,409,272,569,059,860,000 km³

Mass: 1,989,100,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 kg

Density: 1.409 g/cm³

Surface Area: 6,078,747,774,547 km²

Surface Gravity: 274.0 m/s²

Escape Velocity: 2,223,720 km/h

Sidereal Rotation Period (Length of Day): 25.38 Earth days

Equatorial Inclination to Orbit: 7.25 with respect to the ecliptic

Minimum/Maximum Surface Temperature: 5,500 °C (10,000 °F)

Effective Temperature: 5504 °C (9939 °F)

Composition: 92.1% Hydrogen, 7.8% Helium

## Mercury

Type: Terrestrial Planet

Average Orbit Distance: 57,909,227 km

Equatorial Radius: 2,439.7 km

Equatorial Circumference: 15,329.1 km

Volume: 60,827,208,742 km³

Mass: 330,104,000,000,000,000,000,000 kg

Density: 5.427 g/cm³

Surface Area: 74,797,000 km²

Equatorial Surface Gravity: 3.7 m/s²

Escape Velocity: 15,300 km/h

Rotation Period (Length of Day): 58.646 sidereal days

Orbit Period (Length of Year): 0.2408467 sidereal years

Mean Orbit Velocity: 170,503 km/h

Orbit Eccentricity: 0.20563593

Orbit Inclination to Ecliptic: 7.0 degrees

Equatorial Inclination to Orbit: 0 degrees

Orbit Circumference: 359,976,856 km

Minimum/Maximum Surface Temperature: -173/427 °C

## Venus

Type: Terrestrial Planet

Average Orbit Distance: 108,209,475 km

Equatorial Radius: 6,051.8 km

Equatorial Circumference: 38,024.6 km

Volume: 928,415,345,893 km³

Mass: 4,867,320,000,000,000,000,000,000 kg

Density: 5.243 g/cm³

Surface Area: 460,234,317 km²

Equatorial Surface Gravity: 8.87 m/s²

Escape Velocity: 37,296 km/h

Rotation Period (Length of Day): -243.018 sidereal days (retrograde)

Orbit Period (Length of Year): 0.61519726 sidereal years

Mean Orbit Velocity: 126,074 km/h

Orbit Eccentricity: 0.00677672

Orbit Inclination to Ecliptic: 3.39 degrees

Equatorial Inclination to Orbit: 177.3 degrees (retrograde rotation)

Orbit Circumference: 679,892,378 km

Minimum/Maximum Surface Temperature: 462 °C

## Earth

Type: Terrestrial Planet

Average Orbit Distance: 149,598,262 km

Equatorial Radius: 6,371.00 km

Equatorial Circumference: 40,030.2 km

Volume: 1,083,206,916,846 km³

Mass: 5,972,190,000,000,000,000,000,000 kg

Density: 5.513 g/cm³

Surface Area: 510,064,472 km²

Equatorial Surface Gravity: 9.80665 m/s²

Escape Velocity: 40,284 km/h

Rotation Period (Length of Day): 0.99726968 sidereal days

Orbit Period (Length of Year): 1.0000174 sidereal years

Mean Orbit Velocity: 107,218 km/h

Orbit Eccentricity: 0.01671123

Orbit Inclination to Ecliptic: 0.00005 degrees

Equatorial Inclination to Orbit: 23.4393 degrees

Orbit Circumference: 939,887,974 km

Minimum/Maximum Surface Temperature: -88/58 (min/max) °C

Atmospheric Constituents: Nitrogen, Oxygen

## Mars

Type: Terrestrial Planet

Average Orbit Distance: 227,943,824 km

Equatorial Radius: 3,389.5 km

Equatorial Circumference: 21,296.9 km

Volume: 163,115,609,799 km³

Mass: 641,693,000,000,000,000,000,000 kg

Density: 3.934 g/cm³

Surface Area: 144,371,391 km²

Equatorial Surface Gravity: 3.71 m/s²

Escape Velocity: 18,108 km/h

Rotation Period (Length of Day): 1.026 sidereal days

Orbit Period (Length of Year): 1.8808476 sidereal years

Mean Orbit Velocity: 86,677 km/h

Orbit Eccentricity: 0.0933941

Orbit Inclination to Ecliptic: 1.85 degrees

Equatorial Inclination to Orbit: 25.2 degrees

Orbit Circumference: 1,429,085,052 km

Minimum/Maximum Surface Temperature: -153 to +20 °C

Atmospheric Constituents: Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen, Argon

## Jupiter

Type: Gas Giant

Average Orbit Distance: 778,340,821 km

Equatorial Radius: 69,911 km

Equatorial Circumference: 439,263.8 km

Volume: 1,431,281,810,739,360 km³

Mass: 1,898,130,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 kg

Density: 1.326 g/cm³

Surface Area: 61,418,738,571 km²

Equatorial Surface Gravity: 24.79 m/s²

Escape Velocity: 216,720 km/h

Rotation Period (Length of Day): 0.41354 sidereal days

Orbit Period (Length of Year): 11.862615 sidereal years

Mean Orbit Velocity: 47,002 km/h

Orbit Eccentricity: 0.04838624

Orbit Inclination to Ecliptic: 1.304 degrees

Equatorial Inclination to Orbit: 3.1 degrees

Orbit Circumference: 4,887,595,931 km

Minimum/Maximum Surface Temperature: -148 °C

Atmospheric Constituents: Hydrogen, Helium

## Saturn

Type: Gas Giant

Average Orbit Distance: 1,426,666,422 km

Equatorial Radius: 58,232 km

Equatorial Circumference: 365,882.4 km

Volume: 827,129,915,150,897 km³

Mass: 568,319,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 kg

Density: 0.687 g/cm³

Surface Area: 42,612,133,285 km²

Equatorial Surface Gravity: 10.4* m/s²

Escape Velocity: 129,924 km/h

Rotation Period (Length of Day): 0.444 sidereal days

Orbit Period (Length of Year): 29.447498 sidereal years

Mean Orbit Velocity: 34,701 km/h

Orbit Eccentricity: 0.05386179

Orbit Inclination to Ecliptic: 2.49 degrees

Equatorial Inclination to Orbit: 26.7 degrees

Orbit Circumference: 8,957,504,604 km

Minimum/Maximum Surface Temperature: -178 °C

Atmospheric Constituents: Hydrogen, Helium

## Uranus

Type: Ice Giant

Average Orbit Distance: 2,870,658,186 km

Equatorial Radius: 25,362 km

Equatorial Circumference: 159,354.1 km

Volume: 68,334,355,695,584 km³

Mass: 86,810,300,000,000,000,000,000,000 kg

Density: 1.270 g/cm³

Surface Area: 8,083,079,690 km²

Equatorial Surface Gravity: 8.87 m/s²

Escape Velocity: 76,968 km/h

Rotation Period (Length of Day): -0.718 sidereal days (retrograde)

Orbit Period (Length of Year): 84.016846 sidereal years

Mean Orbit Velocity: 24,477 km/h

Orbit Eccentricity: 0.04725744

Orbit Inclination to Ecliptic: 0.77 degrees

Equatorial Inclination to Orbit: 97.8 degrees (retrograde rotation)

Orbit Circumference: 18,026,802,831 km

Minimum/Maximum Surface Temperature: -216 °C

Atmospheric Constituents: Hydrogen, Helium, Methane

## Neptune

Type: Ice Giant

Average Orbit Distance: 4,498,396,441 km

Equatorial Radius: 24,622 km

Equatorial Circumference: 154,704.6 km

Volume: 62,525,703,987,421 km³

Mass: 102,410,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 kg

Density: 1.638 g/cm³

Surface Area: 7,618,272,763 km²

Equatorial Surface Gravity: 11.15 m/s²

Escape Velocity: 84,816 km/h

Rotation Period (Length of Day): 0.671 sidereal days

Orbit Period (Length of Year): 164.79132 sidereal years

Mean Orbit Velocity: 19,566 km/h

Orbit Eccentricity: 0.00859048

Orbit Inclination to Ecliptic: 1.77 degrees

Equatorial Inclination to Orbit: 28.3 degrees

Orbit Circumference: 28,263,736,967 km

Minimum/Maximum Surface Temperature: -214 °C

Atmospheric Constituents: Hydrogen, Helium, Methane

Data and photos credit to https://solarsystem.nasa.gov